What is REDD Plus

In 1992, 197 Parties adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a response to tackle global warming. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted by the Parties to the UNFCCC, which strengthened the Convention by setting legally binding emission reduction requirements for 37 industrialized countries. The ultimate objective of both treaties is to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. The UNFCCC divides countries into three (3) main groups according to differing commitments, namely (a) Annex I Parties, (b) Annex II Parties, and (c) Non-Annex I Parties. Malaysia became a Non-Annex I Party to the UNFCCC when it ratified the Convention in 1994. Malaysia also ratified the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement in 2002 and 2016 respectively.

In response to global deforestation and forest degradation, and during the 13th meeting of the Conference of Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC in Bali, Indonesia in 2007, Parties agreed under the Bali Action Plan on a climate change mitigation approach designed to incentivise developing countries to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This mitigation approach is known as “reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation” or REDD. A year later, at the 14th meeting of the COP in Pozna, Poland, the concept of REDD was expanded to “REDD Plus” or “REDD+” to include “the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.” The implementation of REDD Plus activities is voluntary and depends on the national circumstances, capacities and capabilities of each developing country and the level of support received.



+ in the role of convervation, sustainable management of forest and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries

In essence, REDD Plus is an international framework to guide activities of developing countries on how to report on forest resources and forest management strategies, as well as their results in terms of reducing emissions and enhancing removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs). It helps to reduce emissions from deforestation and from forest degradation, conserve forest carbon stocks, enhance forest carbon stocks, and ensure sustainable management of forest. The REDD Plus framework, commonly known as Warsaw Framework, provides the methodological and financing guidance for the implementation of REDD Plus activities based on earlier decisions adopted by the COP. REDD Plus is also an important mechanism reiterated and recognised in the Paris Agreement, particularly its Article 5.